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大变革时代,建筑企业的出路在哪里?
2016-04-12 12:27     (浏览次数)

每一轮建筑业的重大变革发展,都离不开国家政策的推动,本文从全国统一市场、资质取消、营改增、PPP模式、招投标方式改革、生产方式变革、承包模式变革和管理工具的变革等八个方面进行系统地梳理,从而大家可以观察出行业发展的总体趋势,顺势而为则避免第二部分提出的建筑企业可能面临的十种的“死法”,最后,针对目前状况建议建筑企业向六个方向转型,以赢得新发展


八大趋势,决定建筑企业转型势在必行


统一的全国建筑市场即将形成


2015年9月21日,住房和城乡新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版部出台《推动建筑市场统一开放若干规定》,对打破地方保护、建立全国统一建筑市场做了相应规定。《规定》明确要求: 地方各级住房城乡新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版主管部门在建筑企业跨省承揽业务监督管理工作中,不得违反法律法规的规定,直接或变相实行以下行为:


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版(1)shanzishezhirenheshenpi、beianshixiang,huozhegaozhitiaojian;

(2)shouqumeiyoufalvfaguiyijuderenhefeiyonghuobaozhengjindeng;

(3)yaoqiuwaidiqiyezaibendiquzhuceshelidulizigongsihuofengongsi;

新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版(4)qiangzhikouyawaidiqiyeherenyuandexiangguanzhengzhaoziliao;

(5)yaoqiuwaidiqiyezhucesuozaidizhufangchengxiangxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanzhuguanbumenhuoqishangjizhuguanbumenchujuxiangguanzhengming;

新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版(6)jiangzizhizigedengjizuoweiwaidiqiyejinrubendiquchenglanyewudetiaojian;

(7)yibendiquchenglangongchengyeji、bendiquhuojiangqingkuangzuoweiqiyejinrubendishichangtiaojian;

(8)yaoqiuqiyefadingdaibiaorendaochangbanlirusheng(shi)shouxu;

(9)qitafangaiqiyezizhujingying、gongpingjingzhengdexingwei。


《guiding》chutaihou,gedifangyechutaipeitaozhengcetuijinquanguoshichangdetongyi,suiranyouxiegongzuobujinrenyi,dankexideshijibenshangshishizaizaituijin,youxieyijingchulechengxiao,liru: baozhengjindeqingtuigongzuobuzouyang、budazhe,genjugedishangbaodebaozhengjinshuju,zhufanghechengxiangxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanbuqinglichuyingtuiweituidebaozhengjin24yi,qizhongbufenshengfenyiluoshileqingtuigongzuo,anhuisheng、zhejiangsheng、hubeishengqingtuigongzuojiaoweituchu。


部分资质取消,市场准入与监管方式有望全面调整

 


1、部分建筑业企业资质已取消


(1)2014年11月6日,住房和城乡新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版部印发《建筑业企业资质标准》(建市[2014]159号),新标准对于原《建筑业企业资质等级标准》(建建[2001]82号)中被取消的土石方、混凝土预制构件、电梯安装、金属门窗、预应力、无损检测、体育场地设施工程等7个专业承包资质,在相应专业工程承发包过程中,不再作资质要求。


(2)zuoweilaowuzizhigaigeshidiandeanhuisheng、xianshiyiquanmianquxiaolelaowuzizhi,jiexialaiyouwanglaowuzizhiquxiaojiangzaiquanguotuiguang。


(3)zairiqianzhufangchengxiangxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanbuzaiyinfade《zhufangchengxiangxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanshiye“shisanwu”guihuagangyao》tichu“shisanwu”qijianshenrutuijinxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobangongchengqiyezizhixingzhengshenpizhidugaige,xiudingwanshanqiyezizhibiaozhun,kexueshezhikaohezhibiao,jianshaozizhishuliang。


2、社会信用等体系建立之时,或将是建筑市场全面放开之日


xinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanguozi1984niankaishishishiyiqiyezizhiguanliweihexindejianzhuyeshichangzhunruzhidu,jubeizizhideqiyecainengzaijianzhushichangchenglangongcheng,canyugongchengxiangmutoubiaodezigezeyouqiyeyongyoudezizhileibiehedengjigaodilaijueding!


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版2014nian7yue,weishenruguancheluoshidangdeshibadaheshibajiesanzhongquanhuijingshen,tuijinjianzhuyefazhanhegaige,zhufanghechengxiangxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanbuchutai《tuijinjianzhuyefazhanhegaigederuoganyijian》(yixiajiancheng《yijian》)tichu: jianchidanhuagongchengxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanqiyezizhi、qianghuagerenzhiyezigedegaigefangxiang,tansuocongzhuyaoyikaozizhiguanlidengxingzhengshouduanshishishichangzhunru,zhubuzhuanbianweichongfenfahuishehuixinyong、gongchengdanbao、baoxiandengshichangjizhidezuoyong,shixianshichangyoushenglietaiyushizheyidanshehuixinyongdengtixijianlihou,jianzhuxingyeyouwangdiaozhengyizizhiguanlidengxingzhengshouduanshishishichangzhunrudexianzhuang。


注解: 什么是社会信用体系


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版shehuixinyongtixiyechengguojiaxinyongguanlitixihuoguojiaxinyongtixi。shehuixinyongtixidejianlihewanshanshixinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanguoshehuizhuyishichangjingjibuduanzouxiangchengshudezhongyaobiaozhizhiyi。shehuixinyongtixishiyixiangduiwanshandefalv、faguitixiweijichu;yijianlihewanshanxinyongxinxigongxiangjizhiweihexin;yixinyongxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanshichangdepeiyuhexingchengweidongli;yixinyongxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanxingyezhutijingzhenglidebuduantigaoweizhicheng;yizhengfuqiangyoulidejianguantixizuobaozhangdeguojiashehuizhilijizhi。


tadehexinzuoyongzaiyu,jilushehuizhutixinyongzhuangkuang,jieshishehuizhutixinyongyoulie,jingshishehuizhutixinyongfengxian,bingzhenghequanshehuililiangbaoyangchengxin,chengjieshixin。keyichongfendiaodongshichangzishendeliliangjinghuahuanjing,jiangdifazhanchengben,jiangdifazhanfengxian,hongyangchengxinwenhua。


tashiyizhongshehuijizhi,jutizuoyongyuyiguodeshichangguifan,tazhizaijianliyigeshihexinyongjiaoyifazhandeshichanghuanjing,baozhengyiguodeshichangjingjixiangxinyongjingjifangxiangzhuanbian,jicongyiyuanshizhifushouduanweizhuliudeshichangjiaoyifangshixiangyixinyongjiaoyiweizhuliudeshichangjiaoyifangshidejiankangzhuanbian。zheizhongjizhihuijianliyizhongxindeshichangguize,shishehuizibendeyixingcheng,zhijiedibaozhengyiguodeshichangjingjizouxiangchengshu,kuodayiguodeshichangguimo。


营改增倒逼建筑企业管理升级

 


2016nian03yue23ri,caizhengbu、guoshuizongjulianhexiafa《yingyeshuigaizhengzengzhishuishidianshishibanfa》,jianzhuyeyeyoucilakaileyingyeshuigaizhengzengzhishuidedamu!shuilvyouyingyeshuide3%diaozhengweizengzhishuide11%。


zengzhishuizhixiaqiyedeshijinashuieweixiaoxiangshuijianqujinxiangshui,qihexinshiruhegengduode、hefadequdejinxiangpiao,xingchengkeyidikoudejinxiangshui,congerjiangdiqiyedeshijisuojiaonadezengzhishui。


duiyuxiguanyucufanghuaguanlidejianzhuye,youqishisuichukejiandelianyingguakaojingyingguanlimoshi,yaoqudezue、zhenshidejinxiangpiaodenandushikexiangerzhi!zaixinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaoban8yuedizuzhideyicidiaochazhong,you88%derenyuanrenweizijigongsishuifushangsheng!qizhong,jianzhuqiyeguanlicufang、qubudaojinxiangpiaoshizaidaozhishuifushangshengdezuizhuyaoyuanyin,yinggaizengjiangdaobijianzhuqiyeguanlishengji。


 


PPP模式推动合作模式的变革

 


pppxiangmuxinximantianfeiwu。qijinweizhi,caizhengbupppzonghexinxipingtaidepppxiangmushuliangdadaole10000ge,touzizongedadao12wanyiyuan。yigeshengtuijiepppxiangmuzongtouzishenzhidadao10000yiyuan,yeyoudeyigedijituijianpppxiangmuzongtouzijin1000yiyuan。


2014nian8yue,guowuyuanfabule43haowen,jiaqiangdifangzhengfuxingzhaiwuguanli,zhengfuzhichuquanbunaruyusuan,tongguopingtaigongsidajufuzhaixinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanchengweiguoqushi,difangzhengfujuzhaibeiyangexianzhizaidifangzhaihepppliangtiaotujing。erdifangzhaizhuyaoyongyutihuandaoqizhaiwu,difangzhengfuyaogaoxinjianxiangmu,zhishengxiapppzheiyitiaotujingle,zheiyeshigedizhengfuduipppreqinggaozhangdeyuanyin。


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版pppshichengbaoshangweilaixinjiangongchengxiangmudeweiyizhuyaolaiyuan,“jintianhencanku,mingtiangengcanku,houtianhenmeihao,danshijuedaduoshurensizaimingtianwanshangkanbudaohoutiandetaiyang!"mayunrushishuo。chengbaoshangyaoyingjiehoutiandetaiyang,jiepppxiangmujiushibixude。


注解: 什么是PPP


ppp(public-private partnership),jizhengfuheshehuizibenhezuo,shigonggongjichusheshizhongdeyizhongxiangmurongzimoshi。zaigaimoshixia,gulisiyingqiye、minyingzibenyuzhengfujinxinghezuo,canyugonggongjichusheshidexinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaoban。


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版anzhaozheigeguangyigainian,pppshizhizhengfugonggongbumenyusiyingbumenhezuoguochengzhong,rangfeigonggongbumensuozhangwodeziyuancanyutigonggonggongchanpinhexinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaoban,congershixianhezuogefangdadaobiyuqidanduxingdonggengweiyoulidejieguo。


yubotxiangbi,xiayipppdezhuyaotedianshi,zhengfuduixiangmuzhonghouqixinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanguanliyunyingguochengcanyugengshen,qiyeduixiangmuqianqikeyan、lixiangdengjieduancanyugengshen。zhengfuheqiyedoushiquanchengcanyu,shuangfanghezuodeshijiangengzhang,xinxiyegengduicheng。


pppshipublic-private partnershipdeyingwenshouzimusuoxie,zhizaigonggongxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanlingyu,zhengfucaiqujingzhengxingfangshixuanzejuyoutouzi、yunyingguanlinenglideshehuiziben,shuangfanganzhaopingdengxieshangyuanzedinglihetong,youshehuizibentigonggonggongxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaoban,zhengfuyijugonggongxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanjixiaopingjiajieguoxiangshehuizibenzhifuduijia。


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版pppshiyishichangjingzhengdefangshitigongxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaoban,zhuyaojizhongzaichungonggonglingyu、zhungonggonglingyu。pppbujinshiyizhongrongzishouduan,erqieshiyicitizhijizhibiange,shejixingzhengtizhigaige、caizhengtizhigaige、tourongzitizhigaige。


招投标方式变革

 


1、国家电子招标投标试点工作


2015nian7yue8ri,guojiafazhangaigewei、gongyehexinxihuabu、zhufangchengxiangxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanbu、jiaotongyunshubu、shuilibu、shangwubulianheyinfa《guanyuzhashikaizhanguojiadianzizhaobiaotoubiaoshidiangongzuodetongzhi》(fagaifagui[2015]1544hao),bushukaizhanguojiadianzizhaobiaotoubiaoshidiangongzuo。


anzhao《tongzhi》bushuyaoqiu,dianzizhaobiaotoubiaoshidianfenweizhengfuzongheshidianhejiaoyipingtaishidian。qizhong,zhengfuzongheshidiangenjugediquluoshidianzizhaobiaotoubiaozhiduqingkuang,dianzizhaobiaotoubiaoxitongxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanyunyingjichu,yijibumenhediqutuijianheshenbao,fenpikaizhan。


benpishidianzaizongjieshenzhenshi、kunmingshixianxingxianshijingyanjichushang,jiangshidianfanweikuodadaozhejiangsheng、fujiansheng、hubeisheng、hunansheng、gansusheng、guangzhoushi、yibinshi,gebumenhegediqukeyigenjushijiqingkuangjixutuijianheshenbao。jiaoyipingtaishidianyougedifang、youguanxingyexiehuigenju《dianzizhaobiaotoubiaobanfa》jiqijishuguifantuijian,zaiguojiafazhangaigeweihuitongyouguanbumenzhidaoxiazuzhishishi,quebaogongkaitoumingguifan。benpidianzizhaobiaotoubiaoshidiandeqixianweibentongzhifabuzhiriqizhi2016nian12yue30ri。


2、整合建立统一的公共资源交易平台工作方案出台


2015nian8yue10riguowuyuanbangongtingyinfa《zhenghejianlitongyidegonggongziyuanjiaoyipingtaigongzuofangan》,genju《fangan》yaoqiu,2016nian6yuedi,difanggejizhengfuyijibenwanchenggonggongziyuanjiaoyipingtaizhenghegongzuo,anwenjianyaoqiuzuodaochulepingtaizhiwaiwujiaoyi。


生产方式变革


 


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版国建筑业的生产方式将由传统的生产方式向建筑工业化方式转变。住房城乡新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版部印发《住房城乡新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版事业“十三五”规划纲要》中提出: 到2020年,城镇新建建筑中绿色建筑推广比例超过50%,绿色建材应用比例超过40%,新建建筑执行标准能效要求比“十二五”期末提高20%。装配式建筑面积占城镇新建建筑面积的比例达到15%以上。


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版suiranmuqianjianzhugongyehuayinchengbenhejishuwendingxingdengyinsutuijinhuanman,danyousandianyuanyin,juedingjianzhugongyexiandaihuazhongjiangshilishibirandexuanze。


1)jianzhugongyehuasuizhejishudewendingchengshu,chengbenhuijinyibudejiangdi。


2)renkouhonglidexiaoshi,60、70houlaoyidaijianzhugongrensuizhenianlingzengzhang,tuichujianzhushichanghou,jianzhuyeruobuzhuanxingjianzhugongyexiandaihuashengchan,jiangmianlinwugongkeyong,tongshiqiyedeyonggongchengbenyejiangjinyibutigao。


3)jingjifazhanliniandegaibian,jingjixinchangtaihuanjingxia,jiangjiaqiangziyuanbaohu,huanjingzhili,yichuangxinweidiyifazhandongli,jutongjijianzhuyunxingnenghao+jianzaonenghaohejiyuezhanquanshehuizongnenghaode50%,zhengfubijiangtongguotigaoxiangguanziyuanjiagedebiaoganjinxingdiaokong,yijianshaozongnenghao,zheiyangyeshibidaozhijianzhuchuantongshengchanmoshichengbendeshangsheng。


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版chuantongshengchanfangshidechengbenshangshengyugongyexiandaihuashengchanfangshidechengbenxiajiang,zheishibukeniuzhuandefazhanqushi!liangzhezhongjiangzaimougeshijiandianxiangyu,danggongyexiandaihuashengchanfangshixiadechengbendiyuchuantongshengchanfangshishi,yeshijianzhugongyexiandaihuashengchanfangshidamianjiqudaijianzhuchuantongshengchanfangshideshijiandian。


▼ 成本趋势模拟图

 


承包模式变革


 


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版2016nian5yue20ri,zhufanghechengxiangxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanbuyinfa《jinyibutuijingongchengzongchengbaofazhanderuoganyijian》,congzhengcecengmian,quanmianguihuayindaogongchengzongchengbaoshichangdefazhan。congguojishichangkan,gongchengzongchengbaoyeshiyizhongzhuliumoshi,muqianzhengfuyichutaixiangguanzhengce,bijiangjiakuaigongchengzongchengbaoshichangdefazhan。


管理工具的变革



 


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版2015nian7yue1ri,zhufangchengxiangxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanbufabule《tuijinjianzhuxinximoxingyingyongzhidaoyijian》(jianzhihan[2015]159hao),《zhidaoyijian》duijianzhuxinximoxing(buildinginformationmodelingjianchengbim)tuijinmubiaozuolemingquedechanshu:


1、到2020年末,建筑行业甲级勘察、设计单位以及特级、一级房屋建筑工程施工企业应掌握并实现BIM与企业管理系统和其他信息技术的一体化集成应用。


2、到2020年末,以下新立项项目勘察设计、施工、运营维护中,集成应用BIM的项目比率达到90%: 以国有资金投资为主的大中型建筑;申报绿色建筑的公共建筑和绿色生态示范小区。


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版duiruheshixianmubiao,《zhidaoyijian》zhongnitongguoqidacuoshi,zheiqidacuoshizhongyouqizhideyitideyouliangdianyujianzhuyeqiyehexiangguanrenyuanxixixiangguan:


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版1、tongguozhengfutouzigongchengzhaotoubiao、gongchengchuangyoupingyou、lvsejianzhuhejianzhuchanyexiandaihuapingjiadenggongzuojilijianzhulingyudebimyingyong;


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版2、jiaqiangduiqiyeguanlirenyuanhejishurenyuanguanyubimyingyongdexiangguanpeixun,zaizhucezhiyezigerenyuandejixujiaoyubixiukezhongzengjiayouguanbimdeneirong。


bimjishushiyizhongyingyongyugongchengshejijianzaoguanlideshujuhuagongju,tongguocanshumoxingzhenghegezhongxiangmudexiangguanxinxi,zaixiangmucehua、yunxingheweihudequanshengmingzhouqiguochengzhongjinxinggongxianghechuandi,shigongchengjishurenyuanduigezhongjianzhuxinxizuochuzhengquelijiehegaoxiaoyingdui,weishejituanduiyijibaokuojianzhuyunyingdanweizaineidegefangxinlangcaipiaowangguanwangshouyediannaobanzhutitigongxietonggongzuodejichu,zaitigaoshengchanxiaolv、jieyuechengbenhesuoduangongqifangmianfahuizhongyaozuoyong!


注解: 什么是BIM


jianzhuxinximoxing(building informationmodeling)shiyijianzhugongchengxiangmudegexiangxiangguanxinxishujuzuoweimoxingdejichu,jinxingjianzhumoxingdejianli,tongguoshuzixinxifangzhenmonijianzhuwusuojuyoudezhenshixinxi。tajuyouxinxiwanbeixing、xinxiguanlianxing、xinxiyizhixing、 keshihua、xiediaoxing、monixing、youhuaxinghekechutuxingbadatedian。


建筑企业转型势在必行


综上所述,新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版认为建筑企业转型升级势在必行,面对新政策、新市场、新技术、新机遇,建筑企业需要六个方面转型,实现新发展。


1、经营模式转型: 面对新政策和新监管方式,联营挂靠不久的将来会被终结,企业需要从联营向直营转型;


2、管理模式转型新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版: 直营模式需要建筑企业必须加强成本管理,决定企业从联营挂靠的粗放式管理向精细化管理转型;


3、区域范围转型新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版: 面对即将到来的统一开放的全国市场,和“新型城镇化”、“一带一路”战略实施,建筑企业需要从区域市场向全国乃至全球市场转型,从大中型城市市场向城镇市场转型;


4、承包方式转型新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版: 建筑市场将会出现大者越大、强者越强的竞争格局,每个企业需要找到自己的定位,要么你做很大,要么你在某一领域做的很强,这决定建筑企业需要从施工总承包模式向工程总承包和专业承包两极转型;


5、项目角色转型: 面对地方政府债台高筑、缺钱现状和大力推动PPP模式的背景下,施工企业需要从单一施工角色向投融资+施工双重角色转型;


6、生产方式转型: 传统生产模式成本逐渐上升,现代工业化生产方式成本逐渐下降,现代工业化生产方式终将取代建筑传统生产方式,这决定建筑企业必须从传统生产方式向工业现代化生产方式转型,这是没有选择的,但企业需要结合自身情况选择合适的时间点。


新浪彩票网官网首页电脑版dangqianhuanjingxia,jianzhuqiyeweiyoujingzhundingwei、jinkuaizhuanxing,cainengshixianhualizhuanshen,huodekechixujiankangfazhandekeneng,panghuangdengdaizhinengyiweijihuisangshi,yezhongjiangchengweishidaideqier。

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